lundi 11 novembre 2019

L’hormone Ocytocine : l’engagement de la mère façonne la sociabilité de l’enfant

Ocytocine et sociabilité

Cette étude de l’Université de Virginie et de l’Institut Max Planck identifie ici une pièce du puzzle complexe du développement du comportement humain entre « nature » et « nurture ». La recherche décrypte le système d’ocytocine endogène humain, connu pour son rôle dans la socialité. Les chercheurs montrent, dans la revue Science Advances que ce système est sensible à son environnement précoce avec des changements épigénétiques possibles : le comportement de la mère a ainsi un impact considérable sur le système d’ocytocine en développement de l’enfant.

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Des études récentes menées chez l’animal, suggèrent que les soins parentaux précoces sont associés à des modifications de la méthylation de l’ADN de sites régulateurs du gène du récepteur de l’ocytocine (OXTRm). L’ocytocine est une hormone extrêmement importante, impliquée dans les interactions sociales et le lien social chez les mammifères, dont l’Homme. L’hormone « nous aide » à communiquer avec les autres, renforce la confiance et la proximité dans les relations et peut être déclenchée par un contact visuel, une empathie ou un toucher agréable. L’influence des niveaux d’oxytocine d’une jeune mère sur son comportement et sur le lien qu’elle établit avec son bébé est déjà bien documentée. Ces travaux suggèrent que le comportement de la mère peut également avoir un impact considérable sur ce même système chez son enfant.

Le comportement de la mère avec l’enfant influe sur le futur comportement social de l’enfant 

L’enfance est une phase dynamique et malléable du développement postnatal. De nombreux systèmes corporels se développent et arrivent à maturation établissant souvent les trajectoires psychologiques et comportementales qui seront celles de l’âge adulte. Si la nature joue un rôle évident en nous façonnant à travers nos gènes, nous sommes aussi fortement influencés par nos interactions, avec d’autres personnes et avec notre environnement, rappellent les auteurs. « Il est bien connu que l’ocytocine est activement impliquée dans les processus sociaux, de perception et cognitifs précoces et qu’elle influence les comportements sociaux complexes ». Le comportement de la mère est ici confirmé comme l’un de ces facteurs déterminants du développement du système d’ocytocine de l’enfant.

Lire la suite sur santelog.com ICI

Source: Science Advances (Visuel) 16 Oct 2019 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay0680Epigenetic dynamics in infancy and the impact of maternal engagement

Les 4 livres écrits par le Docteur Arnault Pfersdorff, fondateur de pediatre-online, édités chez Hachette-Famille
  • « Manuel Bébé Premier mode d’emploi » Hachette Famille 286 pages 16,95€ Disponible ICI
  • « Mon enfant ne dort pas- 7 solutions » Hachette Famille 64 pages 5,95€ Disponible ICI
  • « Mon enfant ne mange pas- 7 solutions » Hachette Famille 64 pages 5,95€ Disponible ICI
  • « Mon enfant n’est pas propre – 7 solutions » Hachette Famille 65 pages 5,95€ Disponible ICI

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C’est désormais 4 livres du Dr Pfersdorff pédiatre, qui sont édités chez Hachette et distribués dans toutes les librairies de France, mais aussi Belgique, Luxembourg, Suisse, Canada. Ils s’adressent aux parents. Egalement sur Amazon, Fnac, BNF, etc.


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Cet article L’hormone Ocytocine : l’engagement de la mère façonne la sociabilité de l’enfant est apparu en premier sur Pediatre Online.



from Pediatre Online https://ift.tt/2pSWX3Q

Steve McQueen hopes Year 3 work will inspire art's next generation

Artist says his class photos on show at Tate Britain could be a catalyst for UK schoolchildren

Year 3, Steve McQueen’s “portrait of citizenship” at Tate Britain, could be the catalyst to inspire a new generation of artists, according to the Turner prize and Oscar winner, who said British children deserved access to world-class art education.

McQueen, whose ground-breaking work features portraits of more than 76,000 London schoolchildren and took a year to complete, said Year 3 would help to promote art education in school and the need for diverse work to be included in art institutions.

Related: ‘Childhood is a whirlwind’: Steve McQueen on his mesmerising school photo project

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from Children | The Guardian https://ift.tt/2X2sZX6

We are failing children in care – and they are dying on our streets

There is a lack of support for young people leaving care – but from privatisation of services to inadequate housing, the care system fails children long before the age of 18

If one in four young adults found themselves homeless once they turned 18, with 14% sleeping rough, we’d be asking where the hell their families were. But these figures are the reality for young care-leavers. After they cease to be the official responsibility of their local authority on their 18th birthday, the risks they face as a result of having nowhere to call home include ill health, violence, sexual exploitation and early death.

These are children who have been removed from their families precisely because they have suffered significant harm or are deemed to be at risk. So why do care-leavers so often end up without support, on the streets, camping out on friends’ floors and living insecure lives in unsuitable – and sometimes dangerous – accommodation? “It seems unbelievable that you could take the most vulnerable kids and put them into independent living without a package of support,” says children’s commissioner Anne Longfield. It is hard to disagree.

The privatisation of child protection now rampant across the care sector means local authorities can only pick from what the market opts to offer

726 homeless people died in England and Wales in 2018, according to the latest ONS figures. Over the next few months, G2 and Guardian Cities will look behind this statistic to tell the stories of some of those who have died on Britain’s streets. We will tell not just the story of their death, but the story of their life – what they were like as kids, what their dreams were, their hobbies, what people loved about them, what was infuriating. We will also examine what went wrong with their lives, how it impacted on their loved ones, and if anything could have been done differently to prevent their deaths. 

Although some councils agree to edge care leavers up the housing list, this vulnerable group don’t have priority access to social housing

Related: The homeless death of Kane Walker: how we let down the kid from care

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from Children | The Guardian https://ift.tt/2Q8AeLQ

dimanche 10 novembre 2019

The dreams of children – a photo essay

A dream can represent personal identity, creativity and ambition. Photographer Chris de Bode, working with Save the Children, decided to try to capture a dream in a photo. Most of the children he approached had never been asked the question ‘What do you dream of?’ But all of them had a dream locked up inside, waiting to be heard

Some children knew exactly what their dream was, others needed encouragement but all of them had clear personal motives for the dream. All dreams have the same things in common: they always represent a solution, fulfilment or escape from heartache, longing and ambition.

My father is a rice farmer. He works really hard, but it pays very little. Most people here grow rice, maize or beans. I want to be a different kind of farmer. I want to grow cows! Milk is healthy. It has a lot of proteins and calcium. I learned that in school. I want to have a farm with a lot of cows. People don’t have to pay much to buy the milk.

I dream of living in a peaceful home with a father and a mother. That is normal for most children, but I never had that experience. I felt broken when things got rough at home and I had to be separated from my parents. I learned that a home is very fragile.

I want to be a maths teacher. I read about a girl who was not allowed to go to school. Her parents didn’t have the money for her fees, because they had a debt to a business partner. The girl thought something was wrong, so she stayed up all night to redo the calculations. It turned out it was the other way around: the partner owed her father money! Her father didn’t trust the girl’s calculations so he went to a maths teacher. He told him that his daughter was right. He was so happy and rewarded the girl by sending her to school. I like the story, because it shows how important it is to read, write and understand mathematics.

I want to be the fastest man in the whole world. Everybody at school and in my village will be proud of me. I dream of the moment I arrive in our village with my medal and trophy. Everybody claps and cheers for me. I will be lifted on my friend’s shoulders and my parents will be the proudest of all. To achieve my dream, I practise every day. I can run for hours without sore muscles.

I am very good in volleyball, running and mathematics. I dream of becoming the best volleyball player in the world. I guess that will never happen, so I want to become a heart surgeon in real life.

I was born as Renske, a girl. I was born in the wrong body. I have always felt like a boy. I dream of actually being one. I take masculine hormones. Next year I will have a breast removal surgery. I can’t wait. The hormones cause a lot of damage to my skin. But that is worth it. I enjoy lying in my bed with my binoculars to watch the birds in the sky.

I watch a TV series about a hospital every week. One of the main characters is the heart surgeon. He can always heal his patients. I dream of being him, because my aunt has a heart problem. If I would be the actor, I could make sure she is healthy again.

I was really sick, so my parents took me to Save the Children’s mobile clinic. The doctor gave me an injection and a few hours later, I felt much better. Now, I also want to become a doctor. I want to make other children feel better. I know a doctor earns a lot of money. I would buy a big house for my family and real leather sandals. I would take all my friends to a restaurant to eat pizza. I never ate one in my life, but I have heard that they taste really good.

We never had books in our school. Now we have a nice reading corner where I can sit and read a book. I especially liked the book about a girl who takes care of flowers. I dream of being her. I take really good care of the plants at home. I water them every day and tell them stories. One of our plants has flowers. They smell really good.

I had it all before the war. I was happy. Then the war started. We had to run for our lives. We wanted to take the path through the valley behind me. It is the border between Syria and Jordan. But they flooded the valley so refugees couldn’t pass. We had to walk many extra kilometres. Snipers were shooting at us. Bullets flew everywhere around me. I am lucky to be alive. I don’t know why they did that. I am not the enemy. I am just a boy with simple dreams: I want to be happy again. I am so close to home, but so far away at the same time. It is unreachable, just like a new chance at happiness.

I dream of being a red bird. Red is my favourite colour. I would fly high in the sky and go everywhere. I will fly to my grandmother. She lives around the corner, but birds are faster than my feet. I would also go to my sister. I have to walk for an hour to see her. And I will fly to my aunt in the big city. The blue wall is just around the corner of my house. I pass it a hundred times a day. From now on, I will think of today, my dream and of the photograph. It is so much fun to be the centre of attention.

I dream of many things. After the earthquake in 2010 I had terrible nightmares for a long time. Now I have happy dreams again. Sometimes I dream of becoming a taxi driver and sometimes of being Michael Jackson.

Many girls are not allowed to go to school or only for a couple of years. Then they are required to help at home, to get married or go to work. I am lucky that I can still go to school. I love all animals, especially dogs. People usually don’t take good care of their pets. I want to become a veterinarian, so I can help these poor animals. I will have to study hard, but I am determined.

I saw a TV programme about the universe. It was so fascinating. Now I dream of flying into space. I want to go to the moon. It must be fantastic to see our planet from space. I wonder if I would recognise India. Becoming an astronaut is my goal in life.

People were very sad after the earthquake. They lost family members, friends and their houses. When I play the clown, I can make people laugh again. I feel sad when people are sad.

I want to be a king. The first thing I would do is give people safety and security. People don’t have that in Afghanistan. My country is the most unsafe place to live in the whole world. If I were king, I would also make sure that everybody in Afghanistan has a job. If each family has an income, nobody has to live in poverty. Unemployment is a big problem. People get bored when they don’t work and they start to fight. A king faces many problems. It must be hard to be a king.

I always have to wear my nieces’ hand-me-downs. I never had the experience of picking the prettiest dress in a shop. I want to feel beautiful in clothes that reflect who I am. The slum is smelly and dirty. There are people and garbage everywhere. I am sure that I would feel much better here with new clothes. I would look like a movie star. Everybody would turn their heads and say: ‘Sabina is the most beautiful girl in the slum.’

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from Children | The Guardian https://ift.tt/2QgVrmX

A compound in avocados may reduce type 2 diabetes

A compound found only in avocados shows promise as a safe supplement that could promote insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes.

from Nutrition / Diet News From Medical News Today https://ift.tt/2O1Vgc6